The bulk of UK Leave voters come from disadvantaged areas, and perceive immigration as a threat. But significant exceptions to this trend in England and most importantly in Scotland make it hard to draw a simple causal link between wealth, immigration, and voting patterns.
The UK enjoys opt-outs from many EU policies, without its influence in the EU being diminished. But the UK’s privileged position in the EU has been neglected in the referendum debate, which has been caught up in statistics about the material costs and benefits of the EU.
This chapter establishes the rationale for regulation of banking and financial activity and then traces the evolution of national banking regulation and supervision in a range of countries. Particular attention is paid to the contrasting models in Europe, the USA and the People’s Republic of China; as well as the particular challenges of prudential regulation in the globalised financial markets that have prevailed since the 1990s.
This chapter examines how institutionalized summits served as a tool to foster trust during the Cold War. It argues that summits tried to foster trust both “internally” and “externally”: summitry aimed at developing not only trust among the leaders, but also crucially trust with regard to the Western (economic) system. These two ambitions—interpersonal and systemic—represented a vital transformation, albeit one imperfectly fulfilled, of the international system in the 1970s and 1980s.
This article examines the place of history as a discipline in the wider field of European studies in 2015.
G7/8/20 summits are often accused of many ills: club of the rich, producers of pointless communiqués, unduly gigantic gatherings, over-prepared meetings and media-show events – in a word, useless. This chapter argues for a more qualified assessment of their added value to global governance. This chapter assesses multilateral summitry along three lines, examining respectively the process (the G7 as a diplomatic instrument), the outcome (what agreements G7s actually reached) and the counterfactual (what if the G7 did not exist?).